“Do not forget the child in the assessment”

Tape measure and apple.

The Minute Paper or the One Minute Paper is a technique that teachers can use to assess their own teaching and student learning. The Minute Paper can be introduced at any time during your class time (Davis, Wood, & Wilson, 1983). It can be used at the start, in the middle or at the end of the class. Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATS) are informal quick prompts that valuable student feedback (Angelo and Cross, 1998). The strategy was originally developed by a physics professor at the University of California, Berkeley A few that are easy to implement:

  1. The Minute Paper
  2. The Muddiest Point
  3. One Sentence Summary
  4. Application Cards

If used at the end of the class, it provides a good real time feedback to the teacher on how the lesson was received by the students. Leaving a couple of minutes at the end of the class would be enough to deploy this strategy.

The Steps for using Minute Paper


When to use it. What do you wish to measure? What prompts will get you this information


Incorporate the technique into your classroom teaching, collect and collate the data.


Analyse the data. How can this data would inform teaching strategy? Close the loop by sharing the outcomes with your student.

The Rule

The minute paper according to Angelo and Cross (1993), should have one or two specific questions that you would like answered. Don’t let them be generic and not something that does not give you any measurable indicator. Therefore, first decide what is that you wish to evaluate and then accordingly frame your question. Remember to share the outcome of your analysis with the students for them to understand the value of the activity.

The Questions

Sample questions that can be asked are; What did you understand clearly today and can therefore teach someone else? What was the  Muddiest point of the class today? What was the most important concept taught today? Remember to use one or at the max two questions in your Minute Paper.

The Purpose

It is important to first understand what is it that is being measured? What kind of questions will get us that data? Which aspect of the teaching is being focused upon? The following categories could help structure the questions to address student learning.


  • What was the most interesting thing that you learnt today?
  • If you were to write the headline for today’s class, what would that be? (Headline routine: Visible Learning)
  • What was the most surprising nugget of today’s class?
  • What is the ‘burning question’ that remains unanswered from today’s class?


  • What was that one concept that you need to read more about?
  • What was that one example used or activity done in class that helped you understand the class better today?
  • What was that most important piece of information or strategy from today’s class that you would like to implement immediately?


  • In your opinion, what was the most convincing argument presented today?
  • Did any opinion or argument presented today made you feel uncomfortable?
  • What idea presented today strongly influenced your beliefs?
  • Were the examples used today strongly presented the concepts?
  • In your opinion did the classroom teaching strongly supported your learning?


  • Can you connect what you learnt today with your previous knowledge? Explain the connection in one sentence or a diagram.
  • How does what you learnt today connect with what you have learnt in another subject? Explain in one sentence.

Analysis and Synthesis

  • Can you list the learning outcome of this class?
  • Can you construct one MCQ question from what you learnt today?
  • Can you construct one essay type question from what you learnt in today’s class?

Notes and References

  • Angelo, T. A. and K.P. Cross (1993). Classroom Assessment Techniques
  • Cross, K. P., & Angelo, T. A. (1988). Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for faculty.
  • Davis, B. G., Wood, L., & Wilson, R. C. (1983). ABCs of teaching with excellence. Berkeley:University of California.


4 thoughts on “ONE MINUTE PAPER

Add yours

  1. It is a superb method to judge our own teaching & to check students learning .
    Of course teachers need to plan well to use this 1 minute test method .

    1. Thanks Sujata. Try using any one of the questions given based on what you would like to evaluate. You could write the question on a small placards (1/4 of an A4) and hand it out near the end of class. Collect it back after class to analyse and evaluate.

    1. Thanks Mary!
      Reading a book titled ‘First break all the rules’. The book, in one of the chapters explains how to create questions for a survey or feedback form that should aid us is gathering valuable data. I realise that One minute paper would also work well if we first decide what we wish to measure and then structure the question accordingly.

      Much appreciate your comment

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